The First AFEW Regional Autumn School Was Conducted in Kazakhstan

Author: Marina Maximova, Kazakhstan

Representatives of 10 countries took part in the first regional autumn school organized by AFEW, which was held from 30 October to 5 November in the Oy-Karagay gorge, not far from Almaty, Kazakhstan. The school was conducted with the support of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

High mountains, hot sun, picturesque autumn landscapes, atmosphere of the national yurt instead of the traditional training hall – combined with the team spirit and expectations of positive changes – contributed to the creative atmosphere of the event. The school participants included representatives of the AFEW network from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Netherlands, Tajikistan, Ukraine, sub-grantees of the project ‘Bridging the Gaps: Health and Rights for Key Populations,’ and partner organizations. Such allies and friends are the biggest guarantee of success.

Learning to bridge the gaps

“The autumn school helps to find the answers to a range of questions and get acquainted with the new innovative practices in working with key populations,” says Dilshod Pulatov, Project Manager, ‘Bridging the Gaps’ programme, AFEW-Tajikistan.

He presented the results of the social study to assess the level of labour migration among people who use drugs. It was conducted for 18 months in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The study, which covered 600 respondents, demonstrated regional trends and showed interesting results. The main of them is that the labour migrants who use drugs do not know where they can get help and who can offer such help. In both countries, the respondents pointed out that as labour migrants they experienced problems with access to health and social services.

The results of this research study will help AFEW to scale up the access of drug users to quality HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services and find new partners. Partnerships were created right at the discussion platform. This study proved to be interesting not only to the participants, but also to the guests invited to take part in the autumn school, including representatives of the Project HOPE in Kazakhstan.

Platform for discussion and activism

Today, ‘Bridging the Gaps’ programme is implemented by the organizations from four countries of the region. The autumn school became a platform to discuss strategies, barriers, innovations, and opportunities for cooperation.

“In our country, the biggest gap is an access of underage people who use drugs (PUD) to services. Many services are offered to adult PUD, in particular with support of the international donors. It allows them getting qualified help. At the same time, people often forget that the first experience of drug use happens under the age of 18,” tells Anastasia Shebardina, Project Manager, AFEW-Ukraine.

The project made an important contribution for radically changing the situation: it opened the only rehab centre for drug dependent adolescents in Chernivtsi and supported four civil society organizations.

In each country, there are success stories, which became possible thanks to the project implementation. So far, these are just tiny steps forward in the big scope of the existing problems. Every such step became possible thanks to project staff and activists working hard for a long time, but such victories, even if they are small, enhance personal motivation of people and allow them to set bigger goals.

“One of our achievements is developing the standards of services for PUD serving sentences in the Georgian prisons. We educate prison staff and have drafted a special training module for this purpose. In some organizations, support groups for PUD are already functioning. Rehab centre Help has opened its doors to clients. Now 12 people can stay there and get qualified help. We plan to cover all correctional facilities in the country with our activities,” shares his plans Vazha Kasrelishvili, Project Coordinator of the NGO Tanadgoma.

From knowledge sharing to new rehabilitation models

Sharing knowledge and best practices is one of the goals of the autumn school. Together, it is easier to elaborate strategies and innovative approaches, considering that the tendencies in development of the situation in the region are similar. Today, the search to fund vital projects also requires joint efforts, taking into account the reduction of the funding received from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and other donors in the region. So far, national governments are not ready to take over this financial burden in full scope. Despite their broad fundraising efforts, civil society organizations do not have enough grant funds aimed at scaling up access to services for key populations.

“With the support of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic, within our project we developed two clinical guidelines: on managing pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period of female PUD and on mental health and behaviour disorders in children and adolescents caused by the use of new psychoactive substances. We were able to open a social office for women with HIV, which offers counselling of psychologists and peer consultants. In the country, there are two rehab centres for women with HIV and drug dependence, which cooperate with friendly clinics,” tells Natalya Shumskaya, the head of the AIDS Foundation East-West in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Today, there is a need to use new, more effective rehabilitation models. This idea has been supported by all participants of the autumn school. Such models should be aimed at developing inner strength – empowerment – of each of the members of key populations.

“Maybe now it is time to change and expand our understanding of the rehabilitation concept. It is not only detox and psychology. There should be equal opportunities, in particular based on harm reduction, to accept yourself,” points out Anna Sarang, President of Andrey Rylkov Foundation, Russia.

Preparations to AIDS 2018

Participants of the autumn school also discussed preparations to the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands – the main event of the next year for activists of the AIDS organizations. All countries of the Eastern Europe and Central Asia are already actively preparing for the conference. How can decision makers be involved into this crucial event? What channels are most effective in communicating information about the conference? How to make this event significant? Every day, participants of the autumn school discussed these and other questions. Besides, they learned how to write abstracts for the conference and choose catchy titles for them.

It is very important that the participants developed some new ideas, concepts and thoughts, because starting from 1 December 2017 registration for AIDS 2018 will be open. It will be a new and diverse platform for discussions making decisions significant for all countries and communities.

HIV Test: the Work of Mobile Clinic in Kyiv

Tatiana shows a card of the recipient of services from Eney

Author: Yana Kazmyrenko, Ukraine

We have spent one day with the mobile clinic in Kyiv, Ukraine, that provides HIV testing for people who inject drugs. The social worker Tatiana quit using drugs and has now been diagnosing five HIV cases monthly.

Tatiana Martynyuk (54 years old) visits up to 10 apartments every day, and at least five of her clients each month turn out to be HIV positive. She works at a mobile clinic of the Eney Club in Kyiv, where she anonymously detects HIV and hepatitis C. The project has been supported by ICF Public Health Alliance for more than ten years. There are five mobile teams from the organization in Kyiv and one team always works night shifts in order to cover the sex workers’ testing.

Eney has a large base of volunteers. These people actively use drugs. They offer their friends and acquaintances to pass HIV testing which only takes 15 minutes. If the test is positive, they persuade a person to go to the City AIDS Centre and register there. Not everybody agrees, half of them reject saying that nothing is hurting, and they will not go anywhere.

We have the meeting on Shevchenko Square, the northern outskirts of Kyiv. Our first clients live not so far away. Tatiana brings them HIV tests, alcohol wipes and condoms.

Boiling shirka

Irina shows a drop of blood during testing

Sergey and Irina are meeting us in their one bedroom apartment, where everything is filled up with their belongings. The owners have been planning to renew the closet for several years already, but they have no money and energy for that. Irina, 43 years old, takes the test first. She is already receiving services from Eney.

“I tried drugs two years ago and I liked it,” she is saying, hiding her cracked hands. Ira has been working as a dishwasher, but currently she has no income as the restaurant is being closed.

The woman is getting nervous and takes a cigarette from Tania. The social worker asks Ira to do the test on her own so that she can do the test without any help in case of emergency. A drop of blood, four drops of the special liquid, and a long ten-minute waiting during which Tatiana has the time to ask what Ira knows about HIV.

“The most important thing: HIV can be in shirka (the popular name for one of the most commonly injected opiate derivates,) where a syringe was put for just a second. If in doubt – boil shirka,” Tatiana is instructing, asking other people to leave the kitchen. The HIV test result is strictly confidential. Confidentiality does not allow Tatiana to say that the partner is positive.

Ira is satisfied with the test results, and she is going to wash the dishes. The 33-year-old Sergey is sitting at the table. It was he who “tricked” his female partner into trying drugs. He has been using drugs for 10 years.

Our client is not interested in getting the information about HIV: he is arguing, and saying that you can get HIV while visiting a dentist. Tatiana changes the subject and asks him to invite his friends for the check. Initially, three more people were willing to take the test, but at the end, only 28-year-old Artem came in. He has a rich biography, which includes a 10-year record of drug usage and imprisonment.

“If I want – I will take the drug. If I decide to quit it – I will quit it. I am not in the system. I earn 18,000 hryvnia (about 600 euros) on repairs and construction sites. I can do everything,” he boasts while lighting up a cigarette.

Receiving assistance from their peers

Vladimir’s wife, Inna, waiting for test results

While we are driving, Tatyana keeps telling her story: she has been injecting drugs for 25 years, and then she quit. She was tired and wanted to change her life. Her husband died, her son was drinking alcohol, and her mother is sick. At first, she found work as a street sweeper, but then she settled in Eney Club.

“I get more tired at this job than when I was sweeping the streets. Everyone needs to talk and to be heard, I need to organize things. I am not judging anyone. These people will only accept a help from a person like they are,” she shares.

It seems that with each visit to the next apartment, Tatiana challenges her willpower. She could possibly get her dose of drugs in any such place. Nevertheless, she is holding on. In her situation, one needs to have a special talent in order not to lose the spirit and to do the work with all your heart.

Needle veteran

Vladimir is having a holiday in his apartment in Obolonsky Lipky, the elite district in Kyiv. His prison sentence for the distribution and transportation of drugs has been changed into the conditional one. This was the fourth prison sentence for the 54-year old Kyiv citizen.

Tatiana helps Vladimir with a test

“I have been injecting drugs for 35 years now. I wonder how I survived. Everybody with who I started, is already dead. I prepare everything myself as I know all the recipes. I have studied the 1938 medical military handbook,” Vladimir is saying.

“Vova, you are such a fine fellow,” admires Tanya. The toothless Vova smiles and invites us to see his bathroom, where he has recently changed the tiles.

Vladimir takes the test and tells that he is going to get tooth implants and will start taking care of his health.

“I would not survive without drugs. I got all possible strains of hepatitis and in this way, I keep myself in shape,” he explains.

Vladimir’s elder brother is 59. He has been trying to quit drugs after a stroke. He smells of alcohol – he has been drinking vodka.

“That is how life used to be. In the 90s you would make a whole basin of shirka and you treat the whole district, but times changed and shirka is not the same anymore. We had loads of heroin,” he recalls with nostalgia.

The wives of the two brothers, Inna and Irina, also use drugs. During the test, Inna tells Tatiana to hurry up. She did not have time for injecting the dose, and now she cannot wait to get it.

Improving personal life

“Can you imagine this? I woke up in the morning and noticed that I lost my tooth and ate it in my sleep,” Marta is saying. She works as a hairdresser and has colorful hair.

Marta has been using drugs since she was 12. She says that drugs in Kyiv in the 80s were an element of prestige like a cherry VAZ 2109 (car model.) There was a seven-year break in her history. She started using drugs all over again when she had found out that her first love was HIV positive.

“He died, and I went crazy. In general, I cannot live without injecting. It is an addiction,” she explains.

Marta tries to take the test once a year, and she is going to improve her personal life.

“Tania, please, give me more condoms. My friends have been searching for a fiancée for me. I imagine him taking drugs, but not being a goner; I want him to have an apartment, as I would like to give birth to a child,” she continues.

Tania asks Marta to take her friend for the testing next time. A woman with a dark hair bandage is nervously waiting for her friend. She has recently become a widow, her husband died because of an overdose.

The social base of drug users is expanding

After the test, Tatyana immediately agrees to meet with the next client

After three visits, the social worker is tired, but there are still some addresses from the other side of the city.

“Our program helps them to be safe and control their health. I would also like to add some food arrangements – some of them do not have any food for weeks,” Tania is saying.

The harm reduction program among people who inject drugs in Eney Club started in 2001. The annual coverage was more than 6000 people in 2016. Out of these number, 80% of people have been tested for HIV. Now, the average level of HIV detection among clients is 3.5%, where 80% of people have been placed on dispensary records. The level of drug usage has been growing in Kyiv. There appeared separate subgroups among the people who use drugs. Veterans of the Donbas conflict and immigrants from the Eastern Ukraine form such subgroups.

AIDS 2018: Preparing for Registration and Submitting Abstracts

Author: Anna Tokar, Ukraine

The registration for the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) will symbolically start on December 1 – the World AIDS Day. The conference will gather scientists, political leaders, and people living with HIV from all around the world. One of the key objectives of AIDS 2018 is to spotlight the state of the epidemic and the HIV response in Eastern Europe and Central Asia with a focus on investments, structural determinants and services.

You can already start preparing for the registration for the Conference. Below you can find some important tips:

  • You will be asked to create your personal account – a webpage at the conference website – where you will need to put your key personal information (name, date of birth, education, etc.) Through this account you will submit your thesis or register for the Conference.
  • Registration can be individual or group (only applicable to the registration of five people or more.) The company or organization requesting a group registration must nominate one group representative who will administer the group communication with the Conference committee.
  • Usually, when applying for a scholarship, one should submit a cover letter with clear reasoning of why this scholarship is needed. Your personal details and passport data will be requested.

Scientific tracks

AIDS 2018 Conference will welcome submission of abstracts for original contribution to the field in the following scientific tracks:

Track A: Basic and Translational Research.

Track B: Clinical Research.

Track C: Epidemiology and Prevention Research.

Track D: Social and Political Research, Law, Policy and Human Rights.

Track E: Implementation Research, Economics, Systems and Synergies with other Health and Development Sectors.

Tips for writing a strong abstract

Even though there are no abstract guidelines yet available, you may consider developing a draft anyhow.

Language and grammar

The official language of the conference is English. Thus, all abstracts should be developed and presented only in the English language. The abstracts that are written well have higher chances to be selected by the Conference committee, regardless of their content. Grammar mistakes and typos will distract the reviewers from the actual study content. The reviewers might also wonder if the author is able to communicate study findings in the English language at all. For a non-native speaker, it might be quite difficult to spot all the mistakes or weird phrases. That is why we highly recommend asking for some assistance, for example from your English-speaking colleagues or friends. We also suggest to use the examples of previous conference abstracts and peer reviewed scientific papers. Studying them will help you to understand how to be succinct and informative at the same time. Besides, you might be able to see some useful linguistic construction and techniques.

Brevity is the soul of wit

The abstract should be short, yet informative. That is why you would need to have sufficient time to “pack” all the information into 300 words. If you plan to write an abstract in the last moment, you would not have time to think it through, and thus, most probably you would start “cutting.” As a result, you can end up with the text full of abbreviations, with one line of introduction and super reduced methods section, which will look like a broken puzzle.  Good abstract should be well-balanced, and all its sections should be connected and should smoothly tell the story to your reader. The reviewers would not appreciate any quizzes in your abstract, they would not guess what you mean or what you intend to say. Therefore, the text should be easy to follow, it should be reader-friendly and logically built. In other case, the reviewers might decide that the information provided in the abstract is not enough and simply reject your abstract.

Results will come later

The common problem of many people is to write the abstract without having data or analysis done. It is better not to write an abstract at all, if there are no results available. You also might consider using some previous data. Just try to have some new research questions in your abstract, or try to use a new analytical approach.

Prioritizing the key message

The abstract should be written in such a way, that a key message can be easily grasped. This key idea should be stated in the introduction as the study goal. It should also be presented in the methods, proved by the results, and finally, it should “crystalize” in the conclusion. Think it over for this type of task requires slow thinking and digesting.

Abbreviations and professional terms

Even though the reviewers should be familiar with commonly used abbreviations and professional terms, it is seen as a bad manner to use these concepts without full spelling or clear description. Therefore, when using abbreviation and professional terms, try to follow the norms of scientific writing. Firstly, all abbreviation should be spelled out, when used for the first time in the text. Secondly, the professional language should be avoided or used upon clear definition. Besides, no discriminating or stigmatizing language is acceptable.

Conclusion

If in the Post-Soviet countries, the phrases like “we recommend conducting an additional study” or “more research is needed” are well-accepted, in the Western world such phrases can be perceived as a bad tone, since there is no such field of science where no additional research is needed. Yet, using the precious words for providing these kind of statements is a waste, especially when talking about the conference abstracts. In the conclusion of the abstract, the reviewer is waiting for your final word, the answer to your research question, not for an empty phrase. Another typical mistake is to make ambitious loud claims which are not supported by the results, for instance, that the sample size was not representative, but the conclusions are made based on the whole country population. The best advice is to support the conclusions by data, not by the ambitions of the author. One should also remember that conclusion is like saying goodbye to your readers. Therefore, you should think about leaving them with the feeling of the firm handshake and with a polite smile on your face. This is what you reader will remember.

AFEW Grieves Over the Loss of Yury Sarankov

We, at AFEW network, are shocked by the sad news that our colleague Yury Sarankov passed away.

Yury worked in AFEW from the very beginning. Starting in Russia, when AFEW was not yet founded and activities were implemented under the flag of Medecins sans Frontiers (MSF), he specialized in developing and implementing harm reduction activities. Later, he moved to Kyiv to give harm reduction a boost in Ukraine. He was there when AFEW was established in 2000 and continued working on harm reduction. Yury was a rather introvert person and you would not always notice him, but when the subject of injecting drug use and especially harm reduction was discussed, and how, in the early days, the establishment of harm reduction was often blocked, he raised his voice. Yury became well-known as a harm reduction expert and as the editor of a harm reduction digest that he was spreading by the e-mail through the AFEW network.

In the last couple of years, Yury decided to stop his work with AFEW. However, he continued to work as a consultant on men who have sex with men (MSM) and LGBT issues. He kept the link with AFEW, and until his last days, he remained the member of AFEW-Ukraine fund. We have lost a strong advocate for HIV prevention, the rights of key populations affected by HIV, and also a very nice man and a very dear colleague. Our condolences go to his family, friends, and colleagues.

Communities in Kyrgyzstan Explore their Needs for the First Time

Community research provides an opportunity to objectively assess the existing services. Focus group in the office of Ulukman Dariger NGO in Issyk-Kul area

Author: Olga Ochneva, Kyrgyzstan

Sex workers over the age of 30 desperately need employment; women living with HIV have a need for women’s dormitories – these are the preliminary conclusions of two different studies conducted in Kyrgyzstan. The complete results of the needs’ assessment and HIV prevention programs in the country will be presented at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018). The research is conducted by these communities for the first time. AFEW International provided this opportunity for key populations in Kyrgyzstan and other countries of East Europe and Central Asia (EECA) within the Small Grants Program.

New and unexpected discoveries

International AIDS Conference is a platform for the community to express their voices. Currently, community organizations from the EECA countries supported by AFEW International are carrying out the research, the results of which will be presented at the International AIDS Conference in July 2018 in Amsterdam. There are two research teams in Kyrgyzstan.

“Our organization has wanted to conduct a similar assessment for a long time. This is the first full-scale study among sex workers in the country,” Ulan Tursunbayev, the director of Ulukman Dariger NGO says. His organization assesses the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention program with the help of the sex-workers themselves. “The preparation of the research and data collection took us four months. We traveled the country – four people, two of which being consultants. First, we tested our questions in mini sessions, so that they were clear to the community members and could open them up for the dialog.”

Another organization from Kyrgyzstan – PF Prosvet – conducts research work among women living with HIV. They study the impact of HIV-positive status on women’s lives.

“Community representatives are the main executors of the project,” Margarita Sabirova, a psychologist at Prosvet is saying. AFEW International has provided all training opportunities: trainings, online modules, technical expert support. Community education has become one of the most important and long-lasting pre-research phases. Nowadays, they possess new knowledge and skills, and we have honest and frank research data.”

Data mining has been conducted since April, and the final reports are being currently prepared. It has already become clear that the research contains new and unexpected discoveries.

“It was really interesting to see how the needs of sex workers differ before and after they turn 30,” Ulan Tusunbaev says. “They even sat apart from each other during the focus group meetings. Young women said they had enough condom supplies from prevention projects, outreach work and legal assistance. Older sex workers wanted to change the area of work and asked for the assistance with this.”

Many said that they rather would not provide sex services for the rest of their lives, and wanted to start building their future then.

“In course of my work, I was able to buy some land where I am starting to build a house, and where I will then open a store. I have already prepared the materials for construction,” says one of the interviewees of the research. “I hope this store will help me and my child when I will no longer do sex-work. Therefore, it is good to have some skills training programs available. After all, we have all been working here for 5-8 years and have no education. In order to engage in something different, we would need additional skills.”

The South and North have different needs

Women with HIV: “We need special support.” The head of Public Foundation Prosvet conducts a focus group in Bishkek

Employment is also one of the most important problems for women living with HIV. According to the representative of PF Prosvet, women say that many of them have no spouses and thus they need to take care about their own financial well-being. Some of them are the only ones who financially support their children. Employers often unreasonably demand HIV and medical examination and refuse employment.

“Thanks to the research, we are sure now that the services need to be divided according to the needs of a certain group,” Margarita Sabirova shares. “We have not only identified the priority needs, but also clearly noticed the difference in the set services needed in the North and South of the country. For instance, people in the South need social support, while people in the North of the country are more socialized clients who have different needs.”

The next phase in the Small Grant Program by AFEW International is the training on how to write abstracts (thesis) for organizations in preparation for AIDS 2018 and teaching them how to present their research results.

“The lack of gender approaches in the provision of services and the specifics of different areas of the country often limit access to the health care, legal, social, and psychological support. We hope that the presentation on the results of our study during AIDS2018 will encourage participants from other countries to pay attention to this problem in their own part of the country,” Margarita Sabirova is saying. “The research has identified a number of specific service needs for women, which are not met now either fully or partially. We hope that funds will be available to finance this unmet need. We have many recommendations in our report, and these will help to improve existing services. In any case, as an organization, in whom the community trusts, we should express community needs to the government, donor and non-governmental organizations.”

AFEW is Looking for the Artists: Art-Residence in the Netherlands

The Culture Initiative is an art fund set up by AFEW International for artistic interventions preceding and during the 22nd International AIDS conference 2018 (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam. The fund is looking for visual & performing artists from Eastern European and Central Asian Countries (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan) to critically reflect on HIV/AIDS and its related topics (e.g. affected communities, stigma and discrimination, community health etc) and the relationship and dialogue between ‘The West and the East’ in tackling overarching global social and economic phenomena such as the HIV/AIDS crisis.

The Culture Initiative invites five artists for artist-residencies in Amsterdam in the months leading up to the conference (23-27 July 2018).

There will be three long term residencies (2-3 months) for artist to be placed outside traditional art spaces in institutes and organisations that work in the social and health sphere, such NGO’s, Health-, Research-, and Cultural Institutes. The invited artists will interact with social and health professionals, artists and art organisations in the Netherlands. The artists are asked to reflect on the relationship between the Netherlands and Eastern European and Central Asian Countries (EECA) countries in the sphere of social and public health matters. The final works will be presented at AIDS 2018.

In addition, there will be two short term residencies (1-2 weeks) during the conference period, where the artist will show their work and interact with the conference participants (approximately 18.000).

Criteria for artists or artist collectives applying

  • Contemporary visual and/or performing artists
  • Citizens or originals from any of the eligible EECA countries
  • Proven experience with social and community art projects
  • Good knowledge of (spoken) English
  • Not applicable to art-students

The participant artist or artist collective will be offered

  • Travel, visa and insurance cost
  • Accommodation and working space
  • Daily allowance (25 euro per day)
  • Production fee (depending on requirements max Euro 3.000)
  • Artist/collective honorarium (estimate per month Euro 1.000)

The artists are expected to deliver

Long-Term residents Short Term-Residents
2-3 months between May-August 2018 1-2 weeks 13-27 July 2018
Final Presentation/Exhibition at the Conference 23-27 July 2018
Engagement with conference participants and visitors
Min. 2 Artist presentations/open studios
Min. 2 Artist external presentations
Regular curator meeting and process documentation

The application will consist of the following (only in English)

  • Portfolio – Maximum 5 works/projects – 5 images/videos per project – total not exceeding 20 MB
  • Artist statement (max 200 words) and biography
  • Project ideas (max 300 words)
  • 3 names and contacts of people that could provide recommendations

Send the full application to jan_van_esch@AFEW.nl. Deadline – 5 December 2017. Only selected artist will be contacted.

AIDS 2018 is Looking for Abstract Mentors

Source: AIDS 2018

Abstract mentors are needed for the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam. The Abstract Mentor Programme (AMP) was introduced at the 15th International AIDS Conference in 2004, with the objective to help young or less experienced researchers improve their abstracts before submitting them, in order to increase the chance of their work being presented at conferences.

The programme especially targets researchers from resource-limited settings, who lack access to opportunities for rigorous mentoring in research and writing and for whom online distance education is proven to cost-effectively build research capacity. Over the years, the AMP has proven to increase the motivation of early career researchers, as well as the number of abstract submissions received from resource-limited countries.

This year’s AMP for the researchers will open on 20 November 2017 and close on 15 January 2018. The abstract submissions for AIDS 2018 will then close on 5 February 2018. This gives mentors time to submit feedback and mentees sufficient time to make their final revisions before the abstract submission deadline.

The AIDS 2016 AMP received 138 draft abstracts. From the draft abstracts that received online mentoring and were submitted for this conference, 30% were accepted into the Conference Programme.

The Abstract Mentor Programme is completely independent of the AIDS 2018 abstract review and selection process.

Mentors can apply for the program starting from 23 October 2017 until 15 January 2018. Mentors must have had at least two abstracts accepted at international scientific conferences and have co-authored at least one manuscript accepted by a peer-reviewed scientific journal within the last five years. To become a mentor and to get more information about AMP, click here.

Source: AIDS 2018

AFEW Presents Important Assessments about EECA

AFEW International, together with its network members from Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) is getting ready for AFEW’s Regional autumn school to be held in Almaty, Kazakhstan from October 30 till November 3, 2017. The autumn school will provide the platform for learning, exchange, strategizing and planning for community members and NGO partners from 10 different countries. The regional autumn school is an annual event that takes place as a part of ‘Bridging the Gaps: Health and Rights for Key Populations’ regional approach of AFEW.

One of the highlights of the autumn school’s program will be the presentation of three important assessments that AFEW International recently finalized as a part of the ‘Bridging the Gaps’ program. The final results of all assessments will be available to the general public around December of 2017.

Harm reduction friendly rehabilitation

The assessment on harm reduction friendly rehabilitation in EECA is the study that describes the state of rehabilitation services in Ukraine, Russia, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan. It presents seven international approaches for rehabilitation programs and its activities. The participants of AFEW’s autumn school will discuss the recommendations of what approach is better to adopt for developing stronger work capacity.

Migrant people who use drugs

The assessment on migrant people who use drugs (PUD) is coming from the questionnaire that was disseminated in the EECA region. A survey amongst 600 people who use drugs in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan showed that 43% of the respondents have experienced periods of migration to another country in the EECA region, mostly to Russia. From the qualitative interviews with migrant PUD in Russia and Kazakhstan, it is possible to assume that people have very little access to health facilities, legal documents and often little options to return to their native country. The participants of the autumn school will discuss the full assessment and come up with interventions for the coming two years to build good practices and to advocate for the rights and lives of the community members.

Shrinking space for the civil society

The assessment on shrinking space for civil society is the in-depth assessment on the space for the civil society organizations with a special focus on harm reduction and drug policy in NGO’s and community networks. The withdrawing of international funding and shrinking space for the civil society form a real threat for the fight against the further spread of HIV in the region and the rights and lives of communities. During the autumn school, the coping mechanisms will be discussed and further steps will be designed to address the conclusions.

TB and HIV – a Plague of Tajikistan Prisons

Prisoners in the yard at a colony in Dushanbe. Photo from the archives. Author – Nozim Kalandarov

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

Around 12,000 million people are held in correctional institutions and pre-trial detention centers in Tajikistan. Approximately 100 of them have tuberculosis, and 220 live with HIV.

“HIV prevalence in prisons in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) is estimated to be between 2 and 50 times higher than that in the general population. In EECA, Tajikistan has the highest rate of HIV infection among prisoners – 7%, which is about one-fifth of all people infected with HIV in the country. Additionally, according to the estimates, the risk of contracting TB in prison is 60-100 times higher than outside prison walls. Within the prison population, there is an increased rate of tuberculosis-related mortality compared to that in the general population,” states an overview of HIV and TB in Tajikistan prisons as described by AFEW International in 2015. Now, two years later, let us see how this situation has changed.

100 TB patients

“Over the last eight months, 59 new cases of TB in penal institutions were diagnosed. All these patients are registered and receive treatment. In total, there are 100 prisoners infected with TB in Tajikistan, which is less than 1% of the prison population. Compared to the previous years, the situation has improved significantly: TB detection increased, the laboratories are being modernized, there is new equipment and adequate provision of medications,” the Head of the Medical Department of the Main Directorate of the Penal System of the Tajikistan Ministry of Justice Saidkul Sharipov is saying.

According to Mr Sharipov, a real lifesaver for them was the mobile fluorography unit that could be taken from region to region, allowing for step-by-step screening of inmates.

“Such testing is conducted every six months. For example, recently we have examined about three thousand inmates for mycobacterium tuberculosis in all cities and regions, except Dushanbe. We identified 40 suspected cases of TB that will be followed through during the secondary examination,” Mr Sharipov adds.

In total, some 500 prisoners are kept under regular medical supervision, including those who had already received treatment and have fully recovered.

The Deputy Director for Infectious Control of the Republican Center on Social Protection from TB Saydullo Saidaliev also confirms that the situation with tuberculosis is under control and TB prevalence in Tajikistan has decreased.

“In 2005, more than 300 inmates had TB, this year – only 100. The rate of new infections has also been declining: 77 cases in 2016, 59 over the last eight months. Last year, seven prisoners died from mycobacterium tuberculosis, this year we had zero deaths from TB,” Mr Saidaliev says.

Almost all correctional institutions have special TB hospitals for 5–10 beds, as in prison settings one TB carrier could infect tens of people within a year.

HIV “enters’” prisons from outside

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV are often spread in closed institutions.

Prisoners at a colony in Dushanbe. Photo from the archives. Author – Nozim Kalandarov

“Although we have not analyzed this thoroughly, one could assume that most cases of HIV infection among inmates take place within correctional institutions. Quite some detainees are imprisoned because of drug related crimes, like drug possession. People who inject drugs have a higher risk of living with HIV. Most of them serve a short term, but have the risk to be detained shortly after their release again for another short term. With the window period of detecting HIV, it is difficult to say if and when prisoners have got HIV while detained,”  the Deputy Director of the Republican AIDS Center Dilshod Saiburhanov is saying.

Inmates often learn about their HIV status in prisons, where HIV testing is offered twice a year. Currently we have 220 registered people with HIV, two of them are female, one under age, and 150 receive antiretroviral treatment.

Since 2010, the number of HIV cases among inmates has decreased: 292 were identified in 2010, while over the last nine months only 31 cases were registered – a nine-fold decrease. Screening procedures are improving every year, and 65–70% of prisoners get tested for HIV,” Mr Saiburhanov adds.

Currently, three correctional colonies in Tajikistan have the so-called “friendly offices” that distribute prevention materials – syringes, condoms and information leaflets.

HIV+TB: a particular risk

Experts note that they are especially concerned about HIV and TB co-infection, as people with HIV have a higher risk of getting TB as well.

“That is why there are cases of co-infection in Tajikistan prisons: about 25% of the total number of TB patients,” the Head of the Medical Department of the Main Directorate of the Penal System Saidkul Sharipov says.

Mr Sharipov adds that AFEW-Tajikistan is one of the few international organizations that work in Tajikistan prisons to reduce the burden of infectious diseases, such as HIV and tuberculosis.

“We have been collaborating with AFEW since 2003 to conduct HIV and TB response projects in prisons, as well as information campaigns among inmates to prevent these diseases,” Mr Sharipov says.

One of the main problems is not even the lack of costly treatment and nutrition, because international organizations help with these. It is the lack of healthcare personnel in the penal system.

Drug Treatment Systems in Prisons in Eastern Europe Discussed by AFEW Board Member

Council of Europe Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs published a new publication “Drug Treatment Systems in Prisons in Eastern and Southeastern Europe”. The publication sheds light into the situation of drug users among criminal justice populations and corresponding health care responses in ten countries in Eastern and Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Georgia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine. AFEW‘s board member Vladimir Mendelevich is one of the contributors of the publication. 

The research project on drug-treatment systems in prisons in Eastern and South-East Europe looks in detail into the situation of drug users among criminal justice populations and the corresponding health-care responses in nine countries in Eastern and South-East Europe – Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” and Ukraine – and Kosovo. It was conducted between 2013 and 2016, and is a first attempt to collect relevant data on drug use among prison populations and the related responses in the nine countries and Kosovo.

Although the places chosen are quite heterogeneous in size, structure, legislation, economy, culture and language, they are all in a process of economic, social and cultural transition. This has triggered reforms of some of their prison systems and policies but it has also led to financial and political instability and lack of leadership due to frequent changes in the prison systems’ top management.

The full publication can be downloaded here.