AIDS 2018 March in Amsterdam

AFEW International received the invitation to join AIDS 2018 march in Amsterdam, and we are sharing this message with you. Please fill in the form below in case you are planning to join the march:

Hello everybody,

In a couple of months the International AIDS Conference 2018 will be held in Amsterdam. We are excited and are looking forward to work together with activists all over the world and make this event one to be remembered.

As you might know from previous conferences, traditionally there will be a march or demonstration of HIV and AIDS activists. This year the march will take place just before the official opening of the conference at the RAI Amsterdam Convention Centre in the afternoon of Monday, 23rd of July 2018. With this email we would like to introduce us to you and ask you to join us in the march/demonstration to raise our voices for and with people living with HIV.

We are aware that we might be a little ahead of time. But it gives us together with you more time to activate more people and to organise a good march in cooperation with the local authorities. Please forward this email to more organisations, people, living with HIV or relatives and friends you know and who might like to become part or support the march. 

For some organisational matters we kindly ask you to let us know if you and your organization are interested in updates or possibly want to get  involved. You can do so by filling out an online form:

You will soon hear from us again (if you want).

Kind regards,
Alexander P. &
Hans V.  &
Alexander S.


Post-Soviet Countries Need a Single Document on HIV in the Field of Migration

Presidium of the seminar

Author: Marina Maksimova, Kazakhstan

In the post-Soviet countries, there is no single document that would regulate the issues of HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for migrants as well as their legal status. Migrant workers do not get the adequate services in the countries where they work which inevitably leads to the decline of their health status and to the growth of the HIV epidemic in the region. This message was the main one in the discussion at the sub-regional technical seminar in Astana, Kazakhstan on February 19-20, 2018. The event was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in cooperation with the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) with the support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

HIV rates continue to grow in EECA only

The seminar became a platform for a dialogue between representatives of governments, international and non-governmental public organizations from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Russia, Uzbekistan and interested regional partners.

Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Tajikistan Dirk Jan Kop

“The incidence of HIV is predominantly stabilizing around the world. Even if the indicators are very high, they do not grow. However, in Central Asia and Eastern Europe (EECA), HIV incidence is increasing. HIV is not a problem of marginalized groups only. HIV is closer than you think. It must and can be stopped, also it must be stopped in Central Asia,” says Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Tajikistan Dirk Jan Kop.

This concern was supported by all the participants after considering the situation, strategies used in different countries, best practices, main priorities for the effective response to the HIV epidemic among labor migrants.

The way HIV affects labor migration

Labor migration and HIV prevalence are increasing. This already became a stable trend of the region. There are numerous examples where migrant workers with HIV have no access to antiretroviral therapy in the places of temporary residence. Legislation of some countries provides for the deportation of foreign citizens with HIV. Migrant workers often experience stigma and discrimination.

UNFPA Regional Director for EECA countries Alanna Armitage

“Recent epidemiological surveillance data in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have shown that the prevalence of HIV among people returning from labor migration is 2-4 times higher than among the general population. Migrant workers from Central Asian countries face serious challenges in access to the full information and adequate HIV prevention, care and treatment services,” said UNFPA Regional Director for EECA countries Alanna Armitage.

Experts unanimously admit that better access to HIV prevention and treatment in Central Asian countries is the key to elimination of the HIV epidemic.

Aid for migrants with HIV started in Kazakhstan

In 2018, HIV-positive migrants in Kazakhstan begin to receive aid with the support of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Treatment and laboratory testing will be provided to 150 people.

“Kazakhstan is a country with a low HIV prevalence. Last year, more than 16,000 foreigners were tested for HIV. 0.2% HIV cases were found. If we take the vulnerable groups only, this figure among foreigners will reach nine percent,” says the vice-minister of health of the Republic of Kazakhstan Lyazzat Aktayeva.

In a country where migrants with HIV do not have to be deported, 61 thousand people were tested. This is a heavy burden on the national budget. So far, migrant workers have no legal status and opportunities to receive even a minimal medical service are very limited. Therefore, we need new strategies for working with this category of the population and not only within a single country.

First shot in the battle

The participants called the seminar the first shot in the battle for an overall strategy for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of migrants in the post-Soviet space. The creation of a special structure located in Russia as the biggest receiving country of migrant workers was approved to regulate this process.

Recommendations of the seminar will be presented for discussions at the forthcoming international conferences on HIV/AIDS, which will take place this year: The VI International AIDS Conference for Eastern Europe and Central Asia (April, Moscow) and 22nd International AIDS Conference AIDS 2018 (July, Amsterdam).

Happy with HIV in Tajikistan

Tajik wedding. Source:

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

A Tadjik girl Nozanin was diagnosed with HIV after her husband-migrant returned home a few years ago. As the man has found it out, he walked out on her… Now the 40-year-old woman is happily married again.

Everything was like a fairy tale

“It happened unexpectedly, like in a fairy tale. Once I was taking care of the household, when my friend, who liked me, called. He said that he would come with a mullah (a clergyman conducting the wedding ceremony according to the Muslim canons – editor’s note) and some of our colleagues. They really came. After the religious wedding ceremony, we went to his parents,” Nozanin is saying.

This friend turned out to be a client of the Republican Network of Women Living with HIV, where Nozanin has been working. He was also HIV positive. He wanted to marry a woman with the same status and Nozanin somehow even tried to find him a suitable candidate. It turned out that the man was already in love with her…

“I never thought that I could ever get married again, especially having HIV status,” she says.

Today Nozanin considers herself to be a happy woman. Together with her husband they have a lot of plans and ideas, and they also want to give birth to a healthy child. Many couples living with HIV have the same desire.

A marriage contract is not needed

700 people in Tajikistan receive support from the Republican Network of Women Living with HIV. For the most part, these are young people who want to start a happy family.

Tahmina Haydarova, the head of the network, says that young men between the ages of 18 and 35 come to them searching for a soulmate with the same HIV status. Often these are labor migrants, former drug users or prisoners who have never been married before. Brides are usually those who have already been married. These women contracted the virus from a migrant husband or partner who used drugs.

Such brides do not ask to sign a marriage contract; they do not ask for an apartment or dacha. The most important thing for them is the timely use of antiretroviral therapy by their future spouse and a healthy life.

HIV is not a barrier

Each year the Republican Network of Women Living with HIV helps at least 5-6 young HIV positive people to find their spouses. Takhmina Haydarova is telling about 10 couples who decided to start a family with the fact that one of the spouses is HIV positive.

“If a person loves and accepts you for who you are, then HIV is not an obstacle to start a family. Today antiretroviral drugs that block the HIV are available. A person living with HIV with a suppressed viral load can start a family, give birth to a healthy child, live a full and happy life the way our clients do,” she says.

According to the Republican AIDS Center, the total number of HIV positive citizens in Tajikistan has reached 10 thousand people, one third of them are women. Since 2004, women with HIV have given birth to 1,000 children, 600 of these children have no HIV.

Spices – New Threat for the Tajik Youth

Photo source:

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

While several years ago Tajikistan was concerned with young people being into opiates and stronger synthetic drugs, today there are concerns about the new-generation drugs – so-called spices.

Spicy naswar

The official reports of law enforcement agencies fail to contain any data on the seizure of spices. However, a quick survey among the young people showed that those smoking blends have long been popular in the country.

Spices are the smoking blends, which contain dry herbs and roots. The dried components themselves are not dangerous, but to make the smokers feel a more intense euphoria, the producers add cannabinoids, which are strong narcotic substances. 

“For what I know, earlier spices were distributed in the nightclubs, but now they are mostly sold in the internet and through the grapevine. I also heard that sometimes naswar – the type of smokeless tobacco typical for Central Asia, containing tobacco and alkali (hydrated lime), which is popular among many local people – is processed in the same way as the spices,” says Aziz, a student from Dushanbe.

“Rich kids” having fun

Our anonymous respondent who has 20 years of experience working at law enforcement agencies said that it would not be right to say that young people in Tajikistan are addicted to spices, but this threat should not be disregarded.

“Yes, spices can be easily accessed, but their price is higher than the price of marijuana which young people have traditionally been smoking and continue smoking now. After the heroin “rush” at the turn of the century, many people who use drugs have been massively switching to marijuana and opiates. They strongly believe that marijuana is not more harmful than cigarettes,” he says.

According to him, spices are mostly used in nightclubs by those, who have enough money for it – the so-called “rich kids.”

“They think that spices do not cause addiction and that they can quit using them whenever they want as opposed to opiates and heroin,” says the law enforcer.

Spices do not have the euphoric effects they used to

However, Dr. Mahmadrahim Malakhov who studied the sociocultural aspects of the substance use in Tajikistan, says that the dependence develops much quicker when using spices than when using natural marijuana.

Meanwhile, the exact number of people who use drugs in Tajikistan is not known. Doctors say that few people who use drugs seek medical assistance when they want to quit. They are the ones who are included in the official statistics, which shows that there are a little more than 7 thousand people who use drugs in the country.

Last year, Tajik law enforcers seized about 4.5 tons of narcotic drugs, which is 29.8% more than the year before.

“In particular, 110 kg of heroin, 1.2 tons of raw opium, 2.4 tons of hashish and 742 kg of cannabis drugs were seized. The offences of 52 criminal groups consisting of 115 individuals were investigated and terminated, including five organized transnational groups,” said Murtazo Khaidarzoda, Deputy Head of the Drug Control Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan at the press conference.

About Us with Us Only: Russian Specialists to Attend AIDS 2018

Author: Anastasiya Petrova, Russia

February 5th 2018 was the deadline for submission of abstracts for the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018). One of the key issues during AIDS 2018 will be the discussion of the response to the HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) countries. Below you can see the expectations from experts and representatives from Russian NGOs who have submitted their applications for the Conference.

Yevgeniy Pisemsky

Yevgeniy Pisemsky, HIV and LGBT activist, Head of Organisation PHOENIX PLUS, Person of the Year according to Winq magazine

About the organisation

Our organisation has been active for 11 years now. The main area of activity of Phoenix Plus is support, care and prevention for MSM in relation to HIV. We also support expanding of service centres and fulfillment of human rights.

What the AIDS Conference means for me

In general, I have a positive history with AIDS Conferences. I have visited four. When I came to my first conference in Thailand, I saw a tremendous community of professionals, however, I did not feel myself part of their camp. At that time, the AIDS Conference stimulated my ambitions and I made a resolution to move forward and get something done. So we did – the conference in Mexico City was opened by the fellows from my organisation. This was such an honour! I sat there, in the middle of the conference hall, and cried remembering how it all started.

At the conference in Vienna, I met Elton John AIDS Foundation representative for the first time. Seven years passed and we are still working together. They are our main partners. This is also a result of such conferences. A conference for me is most importantly a possibility to start new acquaintances, form joint plans, and only then acquire knowledge about new technologies and innovations.

My expectations from AIDS 2018

It is very important that at the conference in Amsterdam an attempt to focus attention on EECA region, where HIV situation is worse than in Africa will be made. I would like to share success stories about what we did in Russia on self-testing and learn something new from others. I have prepared an abstract and hope to deliver an oral presentation. We will try to communicate that there are achievements in Russia as well.

Aleksey Mikhailov

Aleksey Mikhailov, Monitoring Division Manager at the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Patient Control Movement activist

About the organisation

Since 2010, we have been conducting monitoring of state procurement of ARV medications. At that time interruptions in the supply of HIV treatment medications began, and we tried to understand why that was happening. Following analysis of state procurement, we realized where interruptions come from and undertook attempts to change the situation.

What the AIDS Conference means for me

I have never been to AIDS Conferences before, this one will be my first. Since the situation with AIDS in the EECA region is currently one of the most challenging epidemiological situations in the world, the AIDS Conference is a great opportunity to put problems of the region into focus. At the same time, it is also an opportunity to discover world trends and implement them in the Russian Federation. This is probably more related to prevention, as our country has its own way of optimizing treatment.

My expectations from AIDS 2018

It is my hope that the organisers will place greater emphasis on what is going on in Russia, Ukraine and other EECA countries. Today we stand at the threshold of a revolution in treatment. Soon we will have prolonged-release medication forms. Development of enhanced dolutegravir, which can be taken once a month, is in progress. It would be vital to learn about similar research, which is for sure to be presented at the AIDS Conference.

Irina Maslova

Irina Maslova, Leader of Silver Rose – Sex Workers’ Rights Movement, CEO of Astra Charitable Women’s Foundation

About the organisation

My official position is Chief Executive Officer of Astra Foundation, where we deal with HIV prevention among women and access to HIV related services. From this position, I am able to communicate with the government from the public healthcare perspective. At the same time, I lead Silver Rose – the movement of sex workers and their supporters, which is not registered but is fighting violence and HIV spread within this vulnerable group. In the past three years, we have done a lot to reverse article 6.11 that criminalizes sex work and to improve the situation for sex workers in our country.

What the AIDS Conference means for me

AIDS Conference for me is a possibility to meet new people. It is vital for experienced specialists to be able to pass their best practices on to those who follow. We have submitted two abstracts to this Conference. The first one is based on the research conducted jointly with Trans-regional NGO Positive Dialogue and AFEW International and related to violence as an obstacle to access to prevention programmes. The second one is on analysis of a project within the framework of co-funding to the main programme of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The uniqueness of this project is that we have managed to reach the 90/90/90 goal. It would be great to share that experience.

My expectations from AIDS 2018

Today we need to talk about bringing the main donors back to Russia. The Global Fund is shutting down its operation in the country, and the government does not finance work with key groups and will not do so while sex work remains to be criminalized. Until the government starts working with this target group, sexual transmission rate will keep growing. In order for the projects for key groups to be effective, we need continuity and that is impossible without funding.

Maria Yakovleva

Maria Yakovleva, HIV activist, Director of Candle Charitable Foundation

About the organisation

We are a self-organization of people living with HIV established in 2004. We provide direct services to vulnerable groups, however currently this activity is being carried out outside projects. We provide equal counselling, social support, as well as first-aid kit and a hotline. The Foundation also provides technical assistance for the Global Fund Coordination Board Secretariat.

What the AIDS Conference means for me

I attended the previous AIDS Conference in South Africa and that was my first International Conference. I was lost at first and only towards the end gained an understanding of how all the resources could be utilized. During the first several days I just walked around open-mouthed at the amount of communication, new information and acquaintances with representatives from organisations around the world. During the previous conference I got acquainted with professionals in AIDS services – representatives of influential organisations in our domain. I really want to go to AIDS2018. The possibility of sharing the information about what is going on in Russia is also very vital. I believe that speaking about your position is also a way of impacting the situation in the country.

My expectations from AIDS 2018

The focus of the upcoming AIDS Conference is EECA region, so the problems to be addressed there will be much closer to us. I hope there will be donors interested in projects in our region. We are also eager to find ground for dialogue with decision-makers.

HIV Risks Grow in Kazakhstan

The number of new HIV cases in Kazakhstan is still growing

Author: Marina Maximova, Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan, the key alarming trend of the recent years is the growing sexual transmission of HIV. Before, most people in Kazakhstan contracted HIV when sharing injecting equipment, but now most infections are transmitted through sexual contacts.

A commonplace story

Zhaniya (the name is changed) learned about her positive HIV status when she got pregnant and went to the maternity clinic for the medical check-up. She got tested and could not believe her eyes when she saw the test result as she never used drugs and her husband was her first and only man. Repeated testing confirmed the positive result. The woman was afraid to tell her husband and family about her status, feeling scared, ashamed, hurt and confused. She could not remain silent either as any news are spread quickly in her village, let alone bad news. The conversation with her husband made it all clear.

“He confessed that he used to inject drugs. It was long ago, when he was still very young. Now he is sorry about that and wants to have a family and children. My husband also got tested for HIV and his result was positive too. He did not know about his disease and did not want to infect me. Now the main thing is for our baby to be born healthy. Doctors say that it is possible,” says Zhaniya.

In Kazakhstan, 99% of pregnant women living with HIV give birth to healthy children. These women often give birth to two or even three children. In the recent decade, the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV dropped four times.

Taking into the account the achievements of the national AIDS service, the stories of Zhaniya and other women living with HIV sound commonplace. The face of the epidemic is becoming more and more female. If earlier mostly men got infected with HIV, now the gender proportion looks more equal. The statistics is illustrated by the following trend: most men rarely go to clinics or make appointments with doctors. Women take more care of their health in general, while pregnant women twice get tested for HIV free of charge.

No sexual education in schools

Natalia Rudokvas, Director of the Answer Charitable Foundation

Another problem contributing to the increased risks of HIV is lack of relevant educational programs in schools and colleges. High school and college students have no access to the information about the routes of HIV transmission and ways to protect themselves at special classes or lectures. There are no guidelines or instructions for educators on this topic. In families, where the topic of sex is a taboo due to the peculiarities of local mentality, children fail to get any information or advice from their parents.

“When our activists make attempts to offer school lectures on the safer sex – we are told we cannot do it. For some reason, promotion of condoms and other contraceptives is considered equal to… debauchery. People blame us, saying that this is what our presentations cause,” tells Natalia Rudokvas, Director of the Answer Charitable Foundation from Ust-Kamenogorsk. She is puzzled with such attitude and hopes that this crucial topic will be discussed at the upcoming 22nd International AIDS Conference AIDS 2018.

Lack of any systematic sexuality education in past years loudly echoes today. Natalia says that people over 30 years of age more and more often seek counselling at their charitable foundation. While young people injecting drugs regularly get tested for HIV and fall under control of the health professionals, older people with “forgotten” histories of drug use stay in the shadow.

The epidemic is growing older

Baurzhan Bayserkin, General Director of the Republican AIDS Centre at the Ministry of Health of Kazakhstan

Several years ago, mostly young people aged 20-29 got infected with HIV in Kazakhstan. Now the age threshold went up to 30-39 years old. Most people got infected twelve or more months ago, and only 10% of the patients were infected within the recent nine months.

“The data received became the ground to carry out an additional epidemiological survey to determine the network of contacts and expand the list of potential risks of infection. High proportion of people who got infected long time ago demonstrates that people have low concerns about contracting HIV. The new approach shows the real picture of the morbidity and allows evaluating the efficiency of prevention measures,” sums up Baurzhan Bayserkin, General Director of the Republican AIDS Centre at the Ministry of Health of Kazakhstan.

The number of new HIV cases in Kazakhstan is still growing. As of today, there are about 29,000 of Kazakhstani and about 2,000 of foreign citizens living with HIV in Kazakhstan.


In Kyrgyzstan, Fines for Drug-Related Offences will Grow 30-Fold

Street lawyers of the Ranar Foundation provide legal counselling to people who use drugs

Author: Olga Ochneva, Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan has adopted new legislation on drug-related crimes. Amendments have been introduced into a number of national legal codes within the broad judiciary reform in the country. The amendments will come into force starting from 2019. Initiators of the reform declare the ideas of humanisation and decriminalisation, but the practitioners and the community expect an opposite outcome.

Unaffordable fines or imprisonment

Aybek (the name is changed) has recently been released from jail. He spent three years behind the bars for 3.5 grams of hashish, which he bought for his own use.

“In 2014, Aybek was caught with drugs and was told to pay a fine of 30,000 Kyrgyz Soms (375 euros) and was let go. Soon, he was seized again for a similar offence. The fine was left in force and in addition, Aybek was sentenced to three years of imprisonment,” the street lawyer of the Ranar Foundation Denis Kucheryaviyis telling. “Now Aybek lives in our social dormitory. He has no passport and he has no job. During his years in prison, he was able to pay only 30% of the fine. He has been told he cannot get his passport unless he pays the whole sum. How can he find a job with no documents? Recently, we learned that he was put on a wanted list due to his failure to pay the fine, so now he faces the threat of imprisonment again.”

According to the Criminal Code currently in force, possession of drugs with no intent to sell in big amounts exceeding one gram for heroin and three grams for hashish is now punished with a fine of 250 to 650 euros or with imprisonment for a term of up to five years. In the new Criminal Code, the fines will be increased up to 3,250-3,750 euros.

“There will be a huge increase in fines. The minimum fine will be 3,250 euros. Will a person injecting drugs be able to pay such a sum at least once in his life?” asks Sergey Bessonov, Executive Director of the Harm Reduction Network Association. “An alternative to paying the fine is deprivation of liberty for up to five years, though the fine will not “disappear” completely and will only move to another category of 1,250-1,750 euros. Now Aybek does not know how to pay 375 euros, and starting from 2019 people will be released after years in prison with fines, which will be 3-5 times higher.”

Humanisation or criminalisation

Fines for the small amounts of drugs (up to 1 gram of heroin and up to 3 grams of hashish) will also be increased. The administrative fine will grow 30-fold: from 12-25 euros to 370-750 euros.

Sergey Bessonov: “We need alternative punitive measures and effective treatment programmes”

“The punishment for the small amounts of drugs will be toughened in the Code of Administrative Offences depending on the number of similar offences during a year. For the first offence, the fine will amount to 2,000 Kyrgyz Soms (23 euros); for the second offence, an administrative arrest for five days will be applied; for the third offence, the fine will amount to 650 euros. In the new Code of Offences, the punishment will not be toughened and there will be no criminal record. Probably this is what the humanisation is about,” assumes Sergey Bessonov. “However, if we look at the practice, most people are seized with the amount of heroin 1.2 -1.5 g which is considered to be a big amount and falls under provisions of the Criminal Code. After the fines are increased, there is a probability that the number of people seized with small amounts of drugs will be growing. The worst thing is that violation of the Code of Offences may also lead to the imprisonment in case if the fine is not paid on time. A person will have two months to pay 370 euros. After this term, the fine will be doubled and the payment period will be extended by one more month. After this month is over, if the fine is still not paid, article 351 of the Criminal Code will come into force meaning from 2.5 to 5 years of imprisonment.”

Currently, Sergey Bessonov and the lawyers of his organisation desperately fight not only for Aybek to stay free, but also to change the legislative amendments proposed. They are due to come into force in one year so there is still a chance to collect evidence that such amendments will lead to the criminalisation of people who use drugs.

“Introducing heavy fines may lead to the growth of corruption practices and increase in the number of prison population, which will have a negative impact on the national budget. Now we are making attempts to show the evidence of all the risks to people developing the new codes,” says Sergey Bessonov. “We need alternative punitive measures and effective treatment programmes. Members of the community were not able to take part in the development of the new codes, but we hope that our voices will be heard. We are doing our best at the national level and we also plan to tell about the recent developments in the drug policy to the international community at AIDS 2018 Conference.”

AIDS 2018 Abstract Support for EECA: 100 Abstracts Submitted

Almost 100 researchers from Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) have received mentorship and expert support through the mentorship program that was established by AFEW International together with Amsterdam Youth Force and Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA). Applicants for XXII International AIDS Conference have received support with editing, translating, and structuring their work according to the abstract requirements. Out of 100 abstracts got by the expert team, 70 received support with formatting and editing and 30 have received an additional language support (full translation into English.)

The mentorship program was developed to enhance the quality and increase submission chances for the applicants from EECA. Within the program, applicants had an opportunity to consult with experts before submitting their abstracts to the Conference Committee. AFEW International is expressing a big gratitude to the experts who were reviewing the abstracts of the EECA applicants.

“The importance of this mentorship can hardly be overestimated. We were able to significantly increase submissions from the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia,” AFEW’s project manager Daria Alexeeva is saying. “We are excited to see the fruits of this collaboration both in form of submitted abstracts but also in form of something that is hardly quantifiable: expertise that our applicants have gained in the area of scientific writing for international events. The very communication with and guidance of the mentors was an enormous capacity building exercise for our applicants. They have trained putting their entire research projects into a concise form of an abstract of 350 words. We are confident that this training will lead to more high-quality research from EECA in the future.”

The board panel of experts consisted of:

Anna Szczegielniak, Youth Coalition

Catriona Ester, independent consultant

Chris Obermeyer, Fulbright Public Policy Fellow, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Public Health Center

Daniel Kashnitsky, Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA)

Eliza Kurcevic, Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA)

Gayane Arustamyan, Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA)

Gennady Roshchupkin, Eurasian Coalition on Men’s Health (ECOM)

Jill Owczarzak, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore

Julian Hows, Development Research Advocacy Governance (DRAG)

Katherine Kooij, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), the Netherlands

Lela Serebryakova, Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA)

Mariam Uberi, BEARR Trust

Roman Ivasiy, All-Ukrainian Charitable Organization FULCRUM

Ulla Pape, University of Bremen

Heather Stacey, Stand International

Janet Gunn, BEARR Trust

Michael Rasell, BEARR Trust

Karen Kraan, Flowz

Anna Sarang, Andrey Rylkov Foundation for Health and Social Justice

Alexandra Volgina, GNP+

AIDS 2018 Early Programme Preview

In addition to a strong abstract-driven programme, the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) will offer symposia, workshops and interactive sessions developed by an international committee of HIV scientists, global leaders, policy makers, researchers and advocates.

Here is a first glimpse of what you can expect in Amsterdam, which you can also browse in our preview of the conference programme. See an overview of the early programme preview below.

Improving treatment and care outcomes

  • Updates on ART options and outcomes, with a particular focus on treatment across the lifespan and in key and vulnerable populations.
  • Addressing NCDs in resource-limited settings.
  • Presenting new data on co-infections and looking at old, and new, threats in infectious diseases in the context of HIV.

The future of prevention

  • Exploring different perspectives on why combination prevention, while highly effective, is not available in many settings.
  • Understanding key population community-led health services (KP-CLHS) as an effective tool in the prevention toolbox.
  • Exploring the future of PrEP as part of combination prevention, taking into account funding concerns, uncertain treatment access for many people, lessons learned to date regarding PrEP implementation, and design issues for future trials.

Understanding HIV pathogenesis

  • State-of-the-art updates on broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) and their use in the development of a potential vaccine and a cure.
  • Understanding HIV persistence and community participation as keys to developing a cure for HIV, long-term remission off ART.
  • Opportunities to tackle the virus at the moment of transmission, recruit the host and manipulate the environment in the fight to end HIV transmission.

Key and vulnerable populations

  • The evolving landscape of drugs, drug policy and harm reduction in the context of rising HIV transmission and political resistance.
  • Empowering young people to access services and make healthier choices through comprehensive sexuality education (CSE).
  • Training implementers to play an active role in changing gender norms.

Insights-driven programming

  • New approaches to using big data to strengthen national HIV responses and deliver improved and effective focused programming.
  • How new innovative approaches to big data allow us to better reach the right audience with the right intervention.
  • Exploring ethical issues in the use of state-of-the-art methodologies and interventions to tailor interventions to local populations.

Under prioritized epidemics

  • Advancing human rights and legal reforms with a focus on sexual minorities, prisoners, people who use drugs and transgender people in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
  • New approaches on how to address the needs of children and adolescents living with HIV from Ukraine, featuring perspectives by healthcare providers and policy makers.
  • Insights on political leadership to advocating for the needs of vulnerable communities, with country examples including Kyrgyzstan and Senegal.

Source: AIDS 2018

Blind Response: Experts Offer Different HIV Estimates in Russia

National campaign: HIV testing in a train carriage, 2017

Author: Anastasia Petrova, Russia

According to the UNAIDS, Russia ranks third based on the rate of the new HIV cases in the world after South Africa and Nigeria. However, there are inconsistencies in the data on HIV incidence dynamics in the country provided by different offices.

Mixed opinions

In May 2017, it became clear that there are some discrepancies in the data on the growth rate of new HIV cases in Russia presented by different government offices. Comparing statistics for the previous years, Veronika Skvortsova, Russian Minister of Health announced that in 2016 HIV incidence dropped down twofold.

“We had the total of 86.8 thousand new cases of HIV, while a year ago, in 2015, there were over 100 thousand. Thus, the number of HIV cases fell down by 15%,” said Veronika Skvortsova.

However, Vadim Pokrovskiy, Head of the Russian Federal AIDS Centre presented different data, which, vice versa, demonstrate a growing number of HIV cases in the country. The scientist told about the growth of HIV incidence by 5.3%. According to the recent data of the Russian Federal AIDS Centre presented shortly before the World AIDS Day, in the first 10 months of 2017 regional AIDS centres reported 79,075 new cases of HIV. This is 2.9% more than during the same period of 2016. This data shows the continuing growing trend in HIV incidence.

Such discrepancies became visible to the public, so the Ministry of Health offered relevant explanations on its official website. In the article dated 17 May 2017, it is written that “in his report, Dr. Pokrovskiy presents the results of scientific epidemiological monitoring of the Institute of Epidemiology of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor) based on the positive laboratory tests for HIV and not the statistical data on HIV incidence for the previous year. The incidence, however, shows the number of people with the confirmed diagnosis (not the number of laboratory tests).”

Thus, according to the Ministry of Health, the calculation method used by Rospotrebnadzor is less accurate considering that one person tested for HIV several times is calculated as several new cases. Some experts, however, say that both statistical approaches may be used as there is a growth of the HIV incidence in the country, but the rate of such growth is decreasing.

“Positive” statistics

Veronika Skvortsova, the Russian Minister of Health

The data on the total number of people living with HIV in Russia is also not quite clear. The Rospotrebnadzor report mentioned above states that as of 1 November 2017 there were 924,608 Russian citizens living with HIV. As for the Ministry of Health data, we have not received any reply to our official request on the number of people living with HIV as of the date of this article. The Ministry fails to submit such data to the UNAIDS to prepare annual reports on the HIV epidemic in the region.

However, some data suggest that the number of people living with HIV in Russia is much higher. Thus, 25,000 Russian citizens were tested in the course of the famous free anonymous testing campaign run by the Ministry of Health in a train carriage, which was held from 7 July to 28 October 2017. Out of them, 375 results were positive. If such statistics is extended to the general population, up to 1.5% of people in Russia may be diagnosed with HIV.

Creating a register

Experts say that the country needs an accurate estimate of the number of people living with HIV.

“The first and the most important goal is to understand the situation and have full information on the number of people living with HIV, the treatment regimens they use and the need in medicines,” says Sergey Krayevoy, Deputy Minister of Health.

It is planned to introduce a Federal Register of People Living with HIV in Russia to analyse the scope of medicines needed and to systematize the statistics. Such database will be administered by the Ministry of Health. Apart from the diagnosis, records will also be made on the health state of the patients, medicines prescribed to them and other data allowing to see the full picture of their health. Thanks to such register, a person relocating within the country will be able to get help in any region.