One in Sixth People Infected with HIV in Tajikistan This Year is a Migrant

Author: Nargis Hamrabayeva, Tajikistan

Approximately five thousand citizens of Tajikistan, which were found to be infected with HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis during their stay in the territory of the Russian Federation, were declared personae non gratae for lifetime by the government of Russia in June this year. How could this expulsion of infected fellow citizens affect the Republic of Tajikistan?

Generally, after returning from Russia, migrant workers, unaware of their status, may unintentionally put the health of the members of their families at risk by spreading and transmitting infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, believes Takhmina Khaidarova, the head of the Tajik Network of Women (TNW) Living with HIV/AIDS.

“The consequences of transmitting and spreading of infectious diseases depend solely on the will of the state. Providing that a state fully implements their commitments within the framework of the National Strategy for the Response to HIV/AIDS Epidemic for 2017-2020, it would be possible to avoid drastic consequences. If the government of a state cannot conduct awareness-building work about infectious diseases and their transmission amongst their population on adequate level, despite the fact whether or not infected migrants would be deported, the increase of the epidemic will stay high,” she considers.

According to Takhmina Khaidarova, the main problem is the low level of awareness about infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, before the migrants leave the country, during their stay in the host country, as well as on their return to their home country. “Migrant workers have little information and preparation, they are not aware about their status before leaving the country and they do not observe any safety measures during their stay in labour migration. After contracting infectious diseases, they return to their home country and, generally, do not undergo medical examinations; so, unaware of this, they transmit infectious diseases to their sexual partners,” says Takhmina Khaidarova.

She believes that another problem lies in the fear of stigma and discrimination, therefore, migrant workers who have returned do not undergo examination until their health deteriorates considerably.

According to figures provided by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tajikistan, there have been noted 384 cases of citizens infected with HIV in the first quarter of 2017, whereby one in sixth is a migrant, who had left in search of work outside the country. Presently, the total number of people living with HIV-positive status in Tajikistan is around nine thousand.

It should also be reminded that Eastern Europe and Central Asia will be a prime focus in the 22nd International HIV/AIDS Conference in 2018, which will take place in Amsterdam in July 2018.

Central Asian NGOs Built a Network for Cross-Border Control of Tuberculosis

Author: Marina Maximova, Kazakhstan

During the regional seminar-meeting held on 6-7 June in Almaty, Central Asian nongovernmental organizations established a network of partner organizations to address issues of labour migration and tuberculosis. The participants accepted draft Memorandum of cooperation between non-profit organizations to reduce the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis among migrant workers in the countries of the region.

“This document was created in response to the need of NGOs consolidation to educate migrant workers about TB symptoms and the opportunities of free treatment and diagnostics in the framework of the project, to promote treatment compliance, to exchange information and to disseminate best practices in the countries of Central Asian region,” says a project manager of the Global Fund, a representative of Project HOPE in the Republic of Kazakhstan Bakhtiyar Babamuratov.

The event was organized by the Project HOPE in the framework of the grant from Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Representatives of non-governmental organizations from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan attended the seminar .

Migrants do not want to be treated

From all the countries in the Central Asian region, Kazakhstan is accommodating the main stream of migrant workers from neighbouring countries. Migration flow continues to grow. Those who come to find a job often agree to any work, they often live in poor housing conditions and do not eat well. This results in tuberculosis development. In 2016, 753 external migrants addressed the organizations of primary health care and TB facilities of Kazakhstan and were tested for tuberculosis. In 2015, there were only 157 visits. Most migrant workers prefer not to attend medical institutions and refuse to be treated in the TB clinics or to be examined by a doctor. They consider it to be a wasting of working time, i.e. money. They have to support families left at home, therefore money is the main reason to come to a foreign country. For the same reason people do not want to spend money on health, even though a Comprehensive plan to combat tuberculosis in Kazakhstan for 2014-2020 involves activities to improve TB services for migrant workers.

Particularly alarming are the cases when a migrant worker is diagnosed with HIV/TB co-infection, and when such patient needs a serious treatment and social support. This important topic will be discussed in 2018 in the framework of the 22nd international AIDS conference – AIDS 2018 – in Amsterdam. This conference will be very special as for AFEW International and the whole region where the organization works — Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

Work at construction sites and markets

In the situation mentioned above, the participation of the NGOs in addressing of this issue has become very important. Outreach workers and volunteers – people, whom the target group trusts, – are searching for migrant workers on construction sites, at the farms, markets, in the restaurants or cafes. They tell migrants about the disease and the free treatment, convince to pass the examination and to provide social support. The results of such work are impressive.

“Within the project, implemented by Project HOPE in 2016, staff and volunteers of our public Fund helped 898 migrant workers to be tested for tuberculosis. For 25 of them the diagnosis was confirmed, and with our assistance people were able to receive free treatment. Besides, we provided migrant workers with motivational food packages. 8,312 labour migrants received information about the symptoms of tuberculosis, and now they know where to go if they are sick,” says the Director of the Public Fund Taldykorgan regional Foundation of employment promotion Svetlana Saduakasova.

These are the results of the activity of only one non-governmental organization in Kazakhstan. Nowadays, social activists are effectively working in eight regions of the country. Such results are possible to achieve only thanks to active collaboration with the non-governmental organizations from those countries where work migrants come from. The community members actively communicate with each other and exchange useful information to be aware of whether the diagnosed person came back to his home city, got registered in the TB clinic, continued to receive treatment, and so on. Only under these conditions we can achieve a complete recovery from TB for each individual and finally stop the growth of morbidity in the region.

Website about Health for Migrants is Available in 13 Languages

 

health-site_engThe information about body, family planning and pregnancy, infections, sexuality, relationships and feelings, rights and law can be found on the website Zanzu – my body in words and images. This projects for migrants was developed by the Flemish Expertise Centre for Sexual Health Sensoa and the German Federal Centre for Health Education (Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung) BZqA. The information is available in 13 languages, including Russian and English.

Information on the website is presented in easy interactive form. Pushing the image brings the reader to other pictures, behind which they can find important information. Section “Dictionary and translations” will provide users with the translations of most widely-used words on the topics mentioned above. On the website there are also contacts of the doctors who help migrants with their health issues.

Besides, on the site there is information for professionals in English, Dutch and French languages. This section contains advice to the foreign professionals on how to talk to migrants and why it is important to discuss their health issues. The content on the website was approved by an international advisory board of European experts in the field of sexual and reproductive health including representatives of WHO.

Join AFEW in the European Networking Zone in Durban

thumb_homepage_mobile_appOnly several days are left until the start of the AIDS 2016 Conference that this year is held in Durban, South Africa from 18 to 22 July. AFEW will be present at the conference with its own booth where everyone can leave a wish to be taken to the 22nd International AIDS Conference in Amsterdam, the Netherlands in 2018.

AFEW booth is situated in the European Networking Zone (ENZ) that is hosted by The European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG), AIDS Action Europe and ECUO. ENZ is part of the Global Village, a space where activists and researchers from the community in Europe will present their work and projects.

Several AFEW activities will be taking part in the European Networking Zone. On July 19 Anke van Dam, AFEW’s Director, will host a question and answer session about the road to AIDS 2018 starting at 15:00 at AFEW booth. Dutch Ambassador for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights & HIV/AIDS Mr. Lambert Grijns and UN Secretary-General Special Envoy on HIV/AIDS in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Mr. Michel Kazatchkine will be taking part in it. On Thursday, 21 July Anke van Dam will tell about the migrants in Eastern Europe and Central-Asia during “Migrants and Access to Health” panel that will start at 16:00. Click here to view and download the program of the ENZ: IAC2016_ENZ_Programme_small

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