The development of Community Advisory Councils in Tajikistan

Newly detected HIV cases in Tajikistan increased by 25% in 2010. Key populations most affected by HIV are people who use drugs (13.5%), gay men or other men who have sex with men (2.7%) and sex workers (3.5%). There is a growing concern that the prevalent pathway of HIV transmission has been radically changed from injecting drugs to sexual transmission. Moreover, HIV is also found more among migrants. This group often does not have knowledge of HIV prevention tools or has no access to health care services. Partners of migrants are now getting HIV as well. The fact that more women live with HIV also risks an increase in mother-to-child transmission.

In 2018, AFEW-Tajikistan expanded its NGO testing services for females who use drugs, sexual partners of people who use drugs (PUD), female prisoners and women living with HIV. With the aim of increased inclusion of people who use the services, Key Population Advisory Councils (KPACs) were established in four cities in Tajikistan: Bokhtar, Dushanbe, Khujand and Kulob. The KPACs represented people living with HIV, sex workers and people who use drugs. Per city, the KPAC consists of four members who serve a term of two years. These members bring recommendations forward and involve the service beneficiaries more closely.

The Tajikistan network of Women Living with HIV (TNW+) started mentoring the KPACs and introduced evaluation tools for people who use the services. While the members of the councils are changing a lot and regular training among members of the current KPACs is still desired, the councils now have a patient-complaint procedure. The concept of “being asked for feedback on your service” is new to Tajikistan and is showing results. In 2018, 85% of all total complaints received were positively resolved. The councils received training and have become convinced of the belief that they could change not only their lives but also society. Apart from monitoring tasks, the members of the councils also offer support on paralegal counselling and peer-to-peer education.

“A woman who used drugs gave birth to a baby. The Drug Treatment Service of Bokhtar has people show up and get their methadone before noon. Sometimes this woman was late because of all the duties with  a baby. Therefore, she sought help in a civil society organisation, which contacted the administration of the methadone site. Now the centre is open until 2 pm, and the woman I mentioned before can get her methadone easier.” 

Takhmina Khaidarova, TNW+

The expansion of service delivery for Civil Society Organisations in Tajikistan has led to a bigger coverage of services for key populations. People who use the services are now taking part in the development of services, planning and implementation of activities and the evaluation of provided services. It has also led to an improvement in providing services with longer opening hours, shorter waiting times in health facilities and friendlier attitudes of medical staff. Besides, TNW+ is linked to the daily reality of the people who use the services. The government considers civil society accountable for monitoring the services, providing feedback and seeing changes.

By integrating TNW+ and service beneficiaries into a system of service delivery, both the community network and the service beneficiaries are strengthened. This leads to more gender-sensitive services for female PUD, (ex)-prisoners and sexual partners of PUD.

Children with Tuberculosis and HIV Do Not Have Access to Education in Tajikistan

Children with HIV and TB do not have access to education in Tajik schools

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

10-year-old Zarina (the name is changed) is from Dushanbe. The girl has a double diagnosis: HIV and tuberculosis. Zarina has never studied anywhere.

Her mother learned she was HIV-positive during the pregnancy. She received her HIV-positive status from her husband. The girl’s father died of AIDS several years ago, and her mother got married again. The stepfather did not accept Zarina, and that is why she lives with her grandmother.

When Zarina turned seven, the grandmother sent her to the first grade in one of the schools in Dushanbe, but the director said the school could not accept the girl, explaining that “she was sick and could infect other children with tuberculosis.”. Therefore, Zarina has not been studying anywhere for three years. The guardianship and trusteeship bodies never asked why the girl did not go to school.

The dialogue that never happened

Human rights activists found out about Zarina’s case and tried to help the family. The representatives of the Tajik network of women living with HIV and the public fund Your Choice approached the officials of the Ministry of Education to find out whether there was a mechanism for providing access to education for such children, but they faced a wall of misunderstanding.

“We were asked to leave the office. The Ministry representatives said that we lied, that there were no such cases, that all children were receiving education, and that we, representatives of non-governmental organizations, only traveled abroad and tarnished the country’s image before the international community. The dialogue never happened,” says Larisa Aleksandrova, representative of the public fund Your Choice.

According to her, children with a double diagnosis of HIV and tuberculosis do not have access to compulsory secondary education in Tajikistan.

“The revealed fact confirms that education officials improperly monitor and keep track of children who do not attend school due to tuberculosis, and they also do not provide these children with the opportunity to receive education at home, the so-called family form of education or homeschool. Although, according to the Health Code, the authorized body in the field of education is obliged to develop programs for getting education at home or in the hospital,” says Larisa Aleksandrova.

With discrimination and without statistics

Larisa Aleksandrova, representative of the public fund Your Choice

The human rights activists are sure that Zarina’s case makes the situation with discrimination of children living with HIV in an educational institution clear.

“The Law on education states that educators should keep track of children of preschool and school age, and monitor their education prior until they complete the compulsory education. In Tajikistan, a nine-year education is compulsory. However, the Law does not define the mechanism for identifying children not covered by compulsory education,” says Larisa Aleksandrova.

The number of children with tuberculosis and HIV who do not have access to education in the country is not known. The Ministry of Education of Tajikistan said that they do not keep such statistics.

We Fight, We Hide or We Unite

We Fight, We Hide or We Unite: coping strategies amongst resilient harm reduction organisations and community networks in the context of shrinking space for civil society in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

The title of this report, ‘We Fight, We Hide or We Unite’, reflects the survival strategies we identified amongst resilient harm reduction non-governmental organisations and community networks of people who use drugs (PWUD) in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA). This assessment forms a part of the regional approach of the AFEW Network within the ‘Bridging the Gaps: health and rights of key populations’ programme, financed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands. This report presents the primary findings from the assessment, ‘Shrinking Space for Civil Society Organisations in Eastern Europe and Central Asia’, conducted between June and September 2017 at the international level by AFEW International and at the regional level.

We provide a detailed description of the overall study purpose, methodology, background and context regarding the shrinking civil society space and the coping strategies of HIV and PWUD CSOs working under these circumstances. The results of this assessment will be used to develop ideas and strategies on how to cope with the local contexts of the shrinking civil society space. In this way, it will contribute to the survival of CSOs and improving the current situation. This assessment represents the first step in the development of this focus within the AFEW Network’s regional approach within the ‘Bridging the Gaps’ programme. It will be followed by an analysis of existing gaps in the support necessary for specific interventions and initiatives to support specific coping strategies; the development of pilot projects on advocacy, service delivery or capacity building; and the continuous monitoring of results.

The full version of the report is available here.

Expert: Polygamy Increases the Risk of the HIV Spread in Tajikistan

Author: Nargis Khamrabaeva, Tajikistan

Polygamy is one of the main factors contributing to the rapid spread of HIV in Tajikistan. This is stated in the research of the Tajik network of women living with HIV. In 2018, this network in cooperation with the public fund Your Choice conducted a review of the legal environment in relation to HIV.

Protection of rights regardless of the status

In Tajikistan, polygamy is officially prohibited and is punishable by a fine of two years of correctional labour. However, as the religious influence on the society increases, many men have several wives. The second and subsequent marriages are not registered but are consecrated by a mullah and normally wives do not live in one house.

“The committee on the elimination of discrimination against women called on Tajikistan to ensure the protection of women’s rights in existing polygamous and religious marriages regardless of their registration status,” says Larisa Aleksandrova who represents the public fund Your Choice and acts as a gender and legal consultant of the research.

According to the expert, polygamy has negative consequences in relation to HIV. First of all, in sexual relations women in Tajikistan usually do not have the right to make a decision to use condoms. Women are not able to counteract the unsafe pattern of men’s intimate behavior. According to the statistics on HIV, programmes promoting safe sexual behavior and family planning are not successful. They also do not have impact on men and youth.

Undisclosed  information is a threat to unofficial wives

Larisa Aleksandrova says that another problem is that men living with HIV prohibit their wives to go to the hospital for treatment.

Larisa Aleksandrova, representative of the public fund Your Choice, gender and legal consultant of the research

“One of the reasons why men have such behavior is the fear of public disclosure of their HIV status. Another reason is additional expenses on the treatment of the spouse, who usually is being financially taken care of by the husband. In many cases, such behavior led to the death of women,” tells the expert.

Besides that, polygamous men living with HIV infect all their spouses. During consultations in the AIDS Centre, they often choose not to tell that they have several wives because polygamy is a criminal offence. Therefore, undisclosed information becomes a threat to the lives of unofficial wives. They simply will not know about their status and will not be able to receive the treatment.

“Polygamy is a major risk for the spread of HIV. In 2017, in the town of Nurek a lawyer defended the interests of a woman who contracted HIV from her husband. She demanded compensation for moral and material damage due to the transmission of HIV. The investigation showed that the woman’s husband had a second wife who had died of tuberculosis. After that, according to the Muslim traditions, the man got remarried for the third time. He was seen together with his new spouse in the AIDS Center in Nurek where both of them were receiving antiretroviral therapy. It is possible that the third wife already was HIV-positive as well”, tells Larisa Aleksandrova.

This is not an individual incident. When interviewing women living with HIV, some respondents said that their husbands had second wives, and in most cases, they found out about it when they got to know about their positive HIV status.

 

Findings from a needs assessment survey of labour migrants among people who use drugs in the pilot regions of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

Findings from a needs assessment survey of labour migrants among people who use drugs in the pilot regions of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

30 November 2017

Financial support for this survey was provided through the budget of the project ‘Bridging the Gaps: Health and rights for key populations 2.0’, funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. Additional financing agreements with AFEW International as of 1 July 2017 and with the UNAIDS country office in Tajikistan as of 31 July 2017 helped finance the survey.

Our analysis points to a set of problems related to information, as well as social, legal and education issues. People who use drugs face these same problems whilst planning, remaining in and returning from periods of labour migration. A lack of finances and social vulnerability represented key problems faced by migrants when planning their labour migration. A lack of finances hampers access among people who use drugs to complete medical examinations through primary healthcare facilities, HIV testing and TB diagnosis in order to obtain the necessary certificates, including those from HIV centres, drug rehabilitation centres and TB control institutions.

The full version of the report is available here.

A Drug-Free Life: how Methadone Changed the Life of a Former Drug User from Tajikistan

Author: Nargis Khamrabaeva, Tajikistan

Methadone substitution therapy for drug dependent people has been used for many years, but so far there are both supporters and opponents of this method. 40-year-old Karim from Tajikistan shared how he personally benefited from the substitution therapy.

Heroin for breakfast, lunch and dinner

Karim started taking drugs when he was 20. At first, it was hashish and weed smoking with friends from time to time. He was 34 when one of his friends handed him a stronger cigarette with hashish and heroin mix.

“I thought, well, it is okay, in this life you have to try everything. A couple of days later I started feeling not very well. It seemed like flu, and back then I did not know that those were the withdrawal symptoms,” Karim is saying.

Karim did not manage to cope with the terrible feeling that people who use drugs get when the whole body aches and pains, there are chills, nausea and weakness. He had to buy a dose, then another one. As a result, he became seriously hooked on heroin. Heroin was for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Karim’s was thinking only about how to get another dose.

At times he would listen to his mother and wife and go to the narcology clinic to get treatment but without any success. He went to work far away, to Russia. Karim did not manage to make money but got addicted to drugs even more. Moving to another place did not help either. The wife left with the children on the condition that she would return when her husband coped with the addiction. Nevertheless, even this did not motivate Karim to knock the habit.

“Of course, I wanted to kick the drug addiction, because I realized that if the situation continued, I would lose my family. But quitting heroin is not easy, you need to harness all your willpower to do it, and not give up. I did not want to suffer. I would last a day or two, and everything began anew,” Karim says.

AFEW helped with methadone

In 2015, Karim heard that AFEW-Tajikistan helps drug users to cope with this craving with methadone substitution therapy. At first, Karim did not believe that something else could help but decided to use this opportunity.

“I went to the organization, received a referral to treatment and started taking strictly defined doses of methadone under the supervision of a doctor. By the way, I did not receive it in the form of injections but got it as a syrup instead. Over the period of three years, the dose of methadone was gradually reduced. Methadone helps to get off the needle and not spread HIV and hepatitis via a common syringe,” he says.

According to Karim, he no longer experiences withdrawal symptoms and hopes that the complete denial of drugs is around the corner.

“Now I am leading a normal life, my wife and four children are back with me,” Karim is saying.

Happy with HIV in Tajikistan

Tajik wedding. Source: wikimedia.org

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

A Tadjik girl Nozanin was diagnosed with HIV after her husband-migrant returned home a few years ago. As the man has found it out, he walked out on her… Now the 40-year-old woman is happily married again.

Everything was like a fairy tale

“It happened unexpectedly, like in a fairy tale. Once I was taking care of the household, when my friend, who liked me, called. He said that he would come with a mullah (a clergyman conducting the wedding ceremony according to the Muslim canons – editor’s note) and some of our colleagues. They really came. After the religious wedding ceremony, we went to his parents,” Nozanin is saying.

This friend turned out to be a client of the Republican Network of Women Living with HIV, where Nozanin has been working. He was also HIV positive. He wanted to marry a woman with the same status and Nozanin somehow even tried to find him a suitable candidate. It turned out that the man was already in love with her…

“I never thought that I could ever get married again, especially having HIV status,” she says.

Today Nozanin considers herself to be a happy woman. Together with her husband they have a lot of plans and ideas, and they also want to give birth to a healthy child. Many couples living with HIV have the same desire.

A marriage contract is not needed

700 people in Tajikistan receive support from the Republican Network of Women Living with HIV. For the most part, these are young people who want to start a happy family.

Tahmina Haydarova, the head of the network, says that young men between the ages of 18 and 35 come to them searching for a soulmate with the same HIV status. Often these are labor migrants, former drug users or prisoners who have never been married before. Brides are usually those who have already been married. These women contracted the virus from a migrant husband or partner who used drugs.

Such brides do not ask to sign a marriage contract; they do not ask for an apartment or dacha. The most important thing for them is the timely use of antiretroviral therapy by their future spouse and a healthy life.

HIV is not a barrier

Each year the Republican Network of Women Living with HIV helps at least 5-6 young HIV positive people to find their spouses. Takhmina Haydarova is telling about 10 couples who decided to start a family with the fact that one of the spouses is HIV positive.

“If a person loves and accepts you for who you are, then HIV is not an obstacle to start a family. Today antiretroviral drugs that block the HIV are available. A person living with HIV with a suppressed viral load can start a family, give birth to a healthy child, live a full and happy life the way our clients do,” she says.

According to the Republican AIDS Center, the total number of HIV positive citizens in Tajikistan has reached 10 thousand people, one third of them are women. Since 2004, women with HIV have given birth to 1,000 children, 600 of these children have no HIV.

Spices – New Threat for the Tajik Youth

Photo source: http://brosaem.info

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

While several years ago Tajikistan was concerned with young people being into opiates and stronger synthetic drugs, today there are concerns about the new-generation drugs – so-called spices.

Spicy naswar

The official reports of law enforcement agencies fail to contain any data on the seizure of spices. However, a quick survey among the young people showed that those smoking blends have long been popular in the country.

Spices are the smoking blends, which contain dry herbs and roots. The dried components themselves are not dangerous, but to make the smokers feel a more intense euphoria, the producers add cannabinoids, which are strong narcotic substances. 

“For what I know, earlier spices were distributed in the nightclubs, but now they are mostly sold in the internet and through the grapevine. I also heard that sometimes naswar – the type of smokeless tobacco typical for Central Asia, containing tobacco and alkali (hydrated lime), which is popular among many local people – is processed in the same way as the spices,” says Aziz, a student from Dushanbe.

“Rich kids” having fun

Our anonymous respondent who has 20 years of experience working at law enforcement agencies said that it would not be right to say that young people in Tajikistan are addicted to spices, but this threat should not be disregarded.

“Yes, spices can be easily accessed, but their price is higher than the price of marijuana which young people have traditionally been smoking and continue smoking now. After the heroin “rush” at the turn of the century, many people who use drugs have been massively switching to marijuana and opiates. They strongly believe that marijuana is not more harmful than cigarettes,” he says.

According to him, spices are mostly used in nightclubs by those, who have enough money for it – the so-called “rich kids.”

“They think that spices do not cause addiction and that they can quit using them whenever they want as opposed to opiates and heroin,” says the law enforcer.

Spices do not have the euphoric effects they used to

However, Dr. Mahmadrahim Malakhov who studied the sociocultural aspects of the substance use in Tajikistan, says that the dependence develops much quicker when using spices than when using natural marijuana.

Meanwhile, the exact number of people who use drugs in Tajikistan is not known. Doctors say that few people who use drugs seek medical assistance when they want to quit. They are the ones who are included in the official statistics, which shows that there are a little more than 7 thousand people who use drugs in the country.

Last year, Tajik law enforcers seized about 4.5 tons of narcotic drugs, which is 29.8% more than the year before.

“In particular, 110 kg of heroin, 1.2 tons of raw opium, 2.4 tons of hashish and 742 kg of cannabis drugs were seized. The offences of 52 criminal groups consisting of 115 individuals were investigated and terminated, including five organized transnational groups,” said Murtazo Khaidarzoda, Deputy Head of the Drug Control Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan at the press conference.

Bridging the Gaps Returned the Faith

Tahmina’s story is one of the positive stories of women in Tajikistan, who, due to the social and legal support of the project Bridging the Gaps: Health and Rights for Key Populations 2.0, again received hope and planned positive changes in their lives.

Family issues pushed to drugs

“When I studied in the 4th grade, my parents already had five children. This is the usual situation in Tajik families in the rural areas. Due to the frequent childbirth and burdensome care for five young children at the same time, my mother often fell ill. I had to drop out of school and take care of everything by myself,” Tahmina is saying.

Tahmina was taking care of all the things in the house, raised her brothers and sisters, helped them with school. Because of the health problems, her mother was constantly in hospitals. Her father spent days at work and came home late at night.

In one of such evenings, when the father was late at work and the mother was in the hospital, Tahmina’s uncle – her father’s brother – visited their house. Asking little Tahmina to come out of the house with him, the uncle raped her. Some time later, the neighbour found unconscious Tahmina and brought her to the hospital. Long investigations started, her mother and father were almost having nervous break-downs because the relatives of the girl started to hate her and blamed her for everything.

“Policemen always came to our house and asked me strange questions. I remember that when I came to the courtroom and saw my uncle there, I just fainted,” Tahmina is saying. “My uncle eventually was sent to prison and I became the cast-away for many of the relatives from my father’s side. Trying to save me from them, my parents sent me to the relatives from my mother’s side. I was always traveling to Dushanbe or to the other cities of the country.”

The girl started to meet different people, became friends with other girls in Qurghonteppa. During one of the meetings, the girls offered Tahmina to smoke cigarettes and then marihuana. They introduced Tahmina to Azam (the name is changed) who turned to be the big drug-dealer in Qurghonteppa.

“During a year and a half, he was keeping me locked in one of his apartments. Sometimes late at night, he would take me to the restaurants,” the woman recalls. “Taking all of this into consideration, he was still sending money to my parents. He taught me how to use drugs. This is how I became addicted to heroin. After some time, Azam’s interest to me faded away and I found myself on the street. Because at that moment my life totally depended on heroin, I started to steal and do sex work so that I could get a doze. As a result, I went to prison.”

The key visit to AFEW-Tajikistan

In 2013, Tahmina went to prison because of the theft. Being imprisoned for a quarter of her term, she got free because of the amnesty. When she went back home, the woman again faced the threats from her father’s relatives side. She had to leave her home and started to live on the streets again. After many unpleasant adventures, Tahmina met people who use drugs whom she knew before, and she started to use again.

Once, Tahmina met Bahriddin whom she knew before. He was also using drugs, but, to Tahmina’s surprise, he changed, and was looking good and happy. It turned out that Bahriddin started to work in the public organisation AFEW-Tajikistan as a peer consultant. He told Tahmina about how he succeeded to change, and he also mentioned the help and services that his organisation is providing. Tahmina got interested in that and decided to visit the drop-in center for the drug users and see everything by herself.

When she just came to AFEW-Tajikistan’s drop-in center, Tahmina was surprised that even though she had a dirty dress and flip-flops were barely covering her bloody feet, she was greeted very warmly. She was offered some tea and the workers talked with her about her health.

“I was very skinny and dirty, and I could not remember the last time I took shower or bath,” Tahmina is remembering that day now.

The social workers helped Tahmina with taking care of herself. They also helped her to come back to her parents’ house, arranged the documents for her and sent her to the doctors so that she could be checked and her health could be improved.

To see the sun again

Since summer 2017, Tahmina comes to the drop-in center very regularly. She is also taking part in self-help groups of people who use drugs. She learned the basics of her personal hygiene, HIV prevention and sexually transmitted infections (STI.) She got to know how to cope with the drug use and the possibilities to live sober. During one of the meetings, Tahmina got to know about opioid-substitution treatment (OST.) The friendly and warm atmosphere, respect and the possibility to get methadone for free inspired Tahmina to change her life.

Since August of the same year, Tahmina started to take part in OST programme that is located in the drug center where she would never go by herself. Nowadays, Tahmina is taking methadone and continues to take part in self-help groups. She found many friends who understand her and are ready to support her.

“With the support of AFEW-Tajikistan, during half of the year, I changed for better. I believed the peer consultants and social workers and started to help my mother, and I have not done so since I left home. AFEW helped me to gain the trust in myself again. My eyes are shining like it was before, I again see the sun and I want to live!” Tahmina is finishing her story with the smile on her face.

Only in 2017, 688 female drug users and vulnerable women in the Republic of Tajikistan were provided with the prevention and social services within the project Bridging the Gaps: Health and Rights for Key Populations 2.0 that is financed by the Ministry of the Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.

In Tajikistan LGBTI Face Blackmailing and Threats

Author: Nargis Hamrabaeva, Tajikistan

In Tajikistan, gays and lesbians were included into a register maintained by law enforcement agencies. However, there are cases when this information is used for blackmailing and intimidation.

In October this year, the Prosecutor General’s Office of Tajikistan published the list of members of LGBTI (the abbreviation was first used in English and stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex) groups in the departmental magazine. In the register, there are 319 gays and 78 lesbians. “They have all been identified in the course of operations implemented by the national law enforcement department codenamed “Morality” and “Purge.” The fact that they belong to LGBTI groups has been proved and they have been entered into the police register,” informs the magazine.

HIV experts emphasize that this category of people is one of the populations vulnerable to HIV. “The data of sentinel surveillance in Tajikistan show that in 2015 the level of HIV prevalence among gay men was 2.7%, whereas in 2011 – 1.5%,” says Dilshod Sayburkhanov, the Deputy Director of the Republican AIDS Centre in Tajikistan.

“It will be difficult to regain their trust”

Our interviewees – representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and LGBTI groups – agreed to comment on the situation provided that they will stay anonymous.

Representative of an NGO protecting the rights of LGBTI (the abbreviation was first used in English and stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) told us that, according to the official statistics, currently there are 13.5 thousand members of sexual minorities residing in Tajikistan.

In his opinion, registration with police may lead to people from LGBTI going underground, exposing their partners to even higher risks. “It will be difficult to regain their trust. This is not a way to resolve the problem of HIV. Vice versa, the problem will grow bigger,” he says.

Blackmailing, intimidation and harassment

Our interviewee is sure that the register of LGBT community members is illegal and harmful for the community members. “It is harmful because all law enforcers will have access to this register, which will lead to the lack of confidentiality, intimidation and blackmailing to earn some money,” he shares his thoughts.

Aziz became a victim of such blackmailing. “When an officer of the local police precinct learned that I belong to the community, he started demanding two thousand dollars from me. He threatened that otherwise my photo and information about me will be on TV and in the internet. I have a wife and a family. Therefore, I had to agree, but where is the guarantee that this situation will not be repeated?” he asks.

Rustam, another representative of the LGBTI community said that just recently he suffered an attack in the entrance hall of the apartment building where he lives. “Two guys attacked me, kicked me down on the floor and were beating me with their feet yelling: “No fags in Tajikistan!” Then they ran away. I do not know where they got information about me as I try to hide my way of life. I am afraid that it came from this register. In fact, I could go to the police, since we have got a security camera at the entrance, but decided against it. I know that law enforcers will not protect the rights of such people as myself and it will only worsen my situation,” he says.

In Tajikistan, LGBTI face not only blackmailing and intimidation but also cyberbullying – harassment in the internet. That is why many members of the LGBTI community try to leave the country and seek asylum. According to some reports, in the recent year two gay men and two transgenders from Tajikistan were given asylum in Western Europe because they were victims of harassment based on their sexual orientation.